Although both are wrenches, they are used for different purposes. Yes, they have some features in common, and sometimes people use one in change for another. However, the technical procedures of how they work are different.
An adjustable wrench is also called an adjustable spanner, adjustable end wrench or crescent wrench. Basically, an adjustable wrench is made to work with bolts and nuts of different sizes.
It’s an open-ended wrench that comes with a movable jaw. A worm gear mechanism enables the jaw to move back and forth with the help of the thumb.
On the other hand, pipe wrenches are used to tighten and loosen pipes. This one also comes with a hook jaw that can move and a fixed jaw. These jaws are connected by moving a knurled nob. The teeth of the jaws are angled, and they tend to stick to the pipe tightly once attached.
The two tools are also different in case of size. While plumber wrench ranges between 3 inches to 60 inches, adjustable wrench comes between 4 inches to 12 inches size.